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In this chapter, we present business opportunities emerging from the problems faced by the large number of the unbanked in the middle-income population of LAC. We continue by elaborating the challenges facing companies tackling these opportunities, and we provide a series of case studies presenting innovative solutions used by successful companies as solutions to these challenges. We complete the chapter by providing constructive conclusions and recommendations for practitioners, with emphasis on the opportunity in attending to the unbanked, who lack access to credit to make the purchases they aspire to and need but don’t have the means.
Context: Pricing is an essential element of software business strategy and tactics. Informed pricing decision-making requires the involvement of different stakeholders and comprehensive data analysis. Achieving both appears to be challenging, and pricing remains one of the most under-managed processes in the software business. Simultaneously, a coherent SaaS pricing body of knowledge and verified solutions to assist SaaS providers while designing and implementing pricing are missing.
Objective: There is a lack of integration among different research areas focused on SaaS pricing and, more importantly, between academia and industry. The primary aim of this paper is to clarify this misconception by classifying, thematically analyzing, and putting in correspondent academic state-of-the-art and industrial state-of-the-practice of SaaS pricing.
Method: A multivocal literature review (MLR) approach was used for the study, exploring both “white” literature as well as “grey” literature. The body of literature of 387 bibliography items was collected using a formal protocol. Of these, 57 were white literature items, and 330 were grey. A multistage content analysis process was implemented to classify the rich literature body across multiple dimensions with further mapping, synthesis, and reporting.
Results: A taxonomy of pricing-related concepts was created. It classifies SaaS pricing aspects, affecting factors, and challenges facing SaaS providers. The findings and interpretations are summarized to emphasize the major research themes and practical challenges of SaaS pricing practices’ transformation and provide further research guidelines in this area.
Conclusion: SaaS pricing is a maturing and prominent area of research that requires further investigation. The conducted MLR formed a clear picture of SaaS pricing research and practice and identified different SaaS pricing aspects and affecting factors. The study will enable both scholars and practitioners to assess the current state-of-the-art in research and practice.
The purpose of this study was to examine communication clarity in calls for papers issued by peer reviewed journals for special issues. I wanted to explore what could hinder and help guest editors to communicate their intent to potential contributors. I searched peer reviewed journals in the field of human resource management published by five leading publishers, including Emerald, Sage, Wiley, Taylor & Francis, and Elsevier. Forty-seven journals were identified, and the sample included 33 calls for papers that I examined using content analysis. The results showed that many guest editors include a problem statement; purpose statement including explicative statements and specifications; and research questions, topics, or themes. Based on this result, I created a composite profile that describes how guest editors typically craft their calls, including the average number of sources, topics, and paragraphs. I also identified eight additional tools guest editors use to increase clarity of their calls. Additionally, my analysis indicated that guest editors vary greatly in their approaches to crafting calls for papers. I identified a number of inconsistencies, inaccuracies, omissions, and redundancies that could confuse or discourage potential contributors. Journal editors could use the results of this study to examine their editorial strategies and practices and revise and improve their guidelines and templates related to special issues and their calls. Special issue guest editors might use the study results to increase the chances of receiving quality submissions.
Do individuals consider bribery as an acceptable behavior? We use a newly-designed game to study if—and under which conditions—bystanders are willing to express disapproval for bribing behavior through costly punishment. We manipulate two key dimensions: the benefits accrued by corrupt actors and the externality imposed on idle victims. We show that on average bystanders were unresponsive nearly half of the time they witnessed bribery. We also find that context specificity matters, as bystanders were more willing to punish when bribing caused them a disadvantageous inequity with respect to corrupt actors, even if bribing enhanced overall welfare. In an additional experiment testing whether social norms play any role in punishment decisions, we find that norms did not align with the observed bystanders’ behavior. This further supports our main result that bystanders did not react to bribery due to a concern for the social norm, but rather for their own comparative disadvantage relative to corrupt actors.
This paper discusses the effect of conformism on the demand for products that differ in quality and studies its implications for firm selection, entry, average quality, and trade pat- terns. Demand for each variety is shown to fall when consumers have a lower degree of conformism or when the distribution of conformism becomes more concentrated. This in- duces firms facing lower demand and of lower quality to exit the market, which raises average quality and diminishes product diversity. In an international trade context, home consumption bias is amplified when there is a lower degree of conformism. Home con- sumption bias is mitigated by the presence of global conformism, in which individuals tend to conform to people across the world rather than within their own country.
Entrepreneurs employ various behavioral logics in the venture creation process, including effectuation and causation. Where prior studies suggest that both causal and effectual approaches are positively related to firm performance, the extant literature has not examined how the institutional context influences this relationship. This study explores how country-level institutions moderate the link between causal and effectual behaviors and firm performance. Using survey data collected from a large crosssectional sample of new ventures from 24 countries, the findings indicate that the effectiveness of causation and effectuation logics is influenced by the level of development of regulatory, normative, and cultural-cognitive institutions. The theoretical benefits of better understanding the context of entrepreneurial decision-making are highlighted.
In this chapter, we dissect a series of case studies of MNCs who developed innovative business models overcoming geographical, infrastructural and social-cultural challenges and exploiting the opportunity reflected in the social-commercial connectedness of the middle-income customers and the largest and most lucrative retail channel in the LAC emerging market – the traditional one. With our analysis we display how innovators incorporate previously ill-collaborating players, such as financial institutions, technology companies, (none)-governmental and (none)-profitorganizations,in their models producing benefits primarily for the MoPcustomers and retailers as crucial partners.Their models expand company´s value chains to the traditional retailers increasing their productivity gains through the provision of technology and modern retail practices, yielding a powerful impact on them and their communities. They employ and train locals with deep knowledge about the needs and aspirations of local communities, as well as access to rural, lower-income consumersout of reach of modern retailers, contributing tojob creation and MoP member´s income and improved quality of life. Innovative enterprises, thus, master multiple distribution schemes to bring an optimal range of products and services to those communities efficiently achieving distribution and overall business excellence as well as social impact.
In early 2020 the world was struck by the epidemic of novel SARS-CoV-2 virus. Like many others, German government has introduced severe contact restrictions to limit the spread of infection. This paper analyses effects of weather on the spread of the disease under the described circumstances. We demonstrate that regions reported lower growth rates of the number of the infection cases after days with higher temperatures, no rain and low humidity. We argue that this effect is channelled through human behaviour. The evidence suggests that “good” weather attracts individuals to outdoor (safer) environments, thus, deterring people from indoor (less safe) environments. Understanding this relationship is important for improving the measures aiming at combating the spread of the virus.
This article studies housing rents in St. Petersburg from 1880 throuhg 1917, covering an eventful period of Russian and world history. Digitizing over 5,000 rental advertisements, we construct a state-of-the-art index — the first pre-war and pre-Soviet market data index for any Russian city. In 1915, a rent control and tenant protection policy was introduced in response to soaring prices following the outbreak of WWI. We document official compliance, rising tenure duration, and strongly increased affordability for workers. While the immediate prelude to the October Revolution was indeed characterized by economic turmoil, rent affordability did not dominate.
Pricing is one of the business and product strategy elements to achieve both financial performance and competitive advantage. The transition towards the Software-as-a-Service model has unlocked new opportunities for pricing software products. Conflicting recommendations from existing studies and industry experts make it challenging for SaaS providers to design and implement the pricing of their services. SaaS providers have come a long way in adapting their pricing practices to the new paradigm that assumes the offering of service instead of selling software as a product. This paper explores how SaaS providers package and price their products by reviewing the pricing information of 220 SaaS providers. The study reveals that SaaS companies are relatively heterogeneous in the way they price their products and the pricing practices of SaaS providers within the same size and product type could differ sufficiently.
This case invites students to put themselves in the shoes of Delia, the company HR specialist responsible for the implementation of mystery shopping at Salsa, a chain restaurant. Students will have the opportunity to discuss the negative impact of this new performance appraisal system on employee morale. Salsa, located in the state of Florida, USA, decided to improve the quality of its customer service by implementing mystery shopping. Six months after this practice was implemented, the quality of customer service has slightly increased. At the same time, employees have grown increasingly unhappy with the practice. First, employees feel the company implemented mystery shopping to spy on them, so their trust in the restaurant management and corporate leadership has decreased. Second, employees of three service areas, kitchen, cashiers, and dining, do not like being evaluated as one big team and thought the old system that used separate criteria for each service area was fair. Third, the company did not provide a formal process for employees to appeal the results, ask questions, or provide suggestions related to the new practice. Observing the situation from Delia’s perspective, students will search for possible solutions to improve this situation.
The transformation of emerging markets in recent decades has generated a new, growing, and very large middle class market, also known as the middle of the pyramid. This market segment, which is middle by the standards of emerging markets yet low by the standards of advanced economies, is extremely attractive for firms, but still understood and underserved. This volume presents detailed analyses of exemplary firms that have innovated products, services, and business models to fulfil the needs and desires of these new middle classes. It provides useful insights for managers, consultants, researchers, and students interested in emerging economies, and actionable lessons on how to innovate for a new and expanding market segment.
Russian authorities have been increasingly willing to facilitate apolitical self-organization to deal with day-to-day problems in people’s life. This enables the regime to channel the energy of the Russian civil society away from collective voice into the politically harmless collective exit. A case in point is community self-organization known as “territorial self-management” (TSM), which is supported by local administrations through cost-sharing and other means. We use a unique dataset on TSM in the city of Kirov to demonstrate that such initiatives accommodate a surrogate form of civic culture, where the sense of civic duties co-exists with skepticism about political voice and with the preference for government patronage. TSM build loyalty to the government in the society, but could also spark broader collective action restoring the agency relation between society and government.
Clinical practice is developing under influence of the evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (EBCPG). In Russia development of the documents prescribing the content of care is connected with the idea that they may be used as well for estimation of the cost of care. The outcome is the national healthcare legislation of 2011. It dictates that care should be planned, funded, provided, and evaluated in agreement with standards of healthcare (SHC)—documents prescribing the content of care. The objective of this study was to evaluate how the correction of the SHC with the relevant EBCPG may change the cost of the prescribed care.
We selected the random sample of the SHC from the approved by the Ministry of Health for primary healthcare (SPHC) and specialized healthcare (SSHC). We analyzed interventions comparing SHC to the relevant EBCPG. Not recommended interventions were considered unnecessary. If the recommended by EBCPG intervention was missed in the SHC, then it increased the cost. We take the drug costs and the costs of interventions from the relevant ministerial registries. We calculated the total cost of the SHC by summing up the cost of each medical intervention/medications specified in the SHC.
SPHC and SSHC both contain medical interventions and drugs that should not be provided. The total cost of all SHC included became lower: SPHC cost decreased by 66%, SSHC by 19%. The smaller change of the cost of SSHC is explained by the fact that the major part of the total cost of SSHC is the stay in a hospital.
Correction of the SHC using EBCPG may reduce the cost of care
In a randomized controlled trial, a large retail chain’s Chief Executive Officer (CEO) sets new goals for the managers of the treated stores by asking them to “do what they can” to reduce the employee quit rate. The treatment decreases the quit rate by a fifth to a quarter, lasting nine months before petering out, but reappearing after a reminder. There is no treatment effect on sales. Further analysis reveals that treated store managers spend more time on human resources (HR) and less on customer service. Our findings show that middle managers are instrumental in reducing personnel turnover, but they face a trade-off between investing in different activities in a multitasking environment with limited resources. The treatment does produce efficiency gains. However, these occur only at the firm level.
Matching students with universities in Russia occurs via a complicated procedure. Most students are admitted based on the Unified State Exam (USE)—a standardized government-organized test, while the most selective universities enroll the winners of the Olympiads—intellectual competitions for high-schoolers. Olympiads have a long history in Russia—enthusiasts organized the first mathematical competitions in the 1960s. Today, there are hundreds of Olympiads in which high school students compete in all school subjects and in non-curriculum fields, such as robotics, critical thinking, creative writing, and business. Some Olympiad awards (in most cases, at the university's discretion) open the doors to a bachelor's program bypassing all examinations; others exempt students from certain subjects in USE.
This research is aimed to discuss the issue that lies in the intersection of strategic management, operational management, and organizational behavior. The study discovers a new research field and brings scientific contributions, such as a combination of the main advantages of Agile and Strategy-as-Practice (SasP) implementation. This research is theoretical and empirical in equal measure. The paper contains the overview and analysis of theoretical and empirical foundations related to the research problem and based on academic and professional literature, overview of the best international business practices in this field. The results are based on Russian IT-companies case-study, qualitative interviews, and quantitative survey.
This paper is devoted to the study of multicriteria cooperative games with vector payoffs and coalition partition. An imputation based on the concept of the Owen value is proposed. The definition of a stable coalition partition for bi-criteria games is formulated. A three-player cooperative game with the 0-1 characteristic function is considered and stability conditions of a coalition partition are established.
The paper investigates the variety of peer effects on individual performance in a team sport. The individual performance of more than 5,000 soccer players, from 234 teams, between 2010 and 2015, is measured with the help of the FIFA video game simulator developed by EA Sports. The study reveals positive peer effects on individual performance although the marginal benefit decreases. Additionally, team cohesion contributes to an improvement of players’ ranking.
In this paper, we rethink the corporate digital divide, a phenomenon not studied in detail in prior research. Motivated by innovation-diffusion, competence-based and skill-biased technical change theories, we hypothesize that all digital technologies’ innovations must be supported by demand for related skills and should be integrated into an innovation cycle. This research is conducted using a vast dataset of 1000 large Russian firms observed over ten years, with information collected from open internet-based sources and processed through content analysis. Among the key findings, the digital-innovation cycle has been explored and visualized, by identifying the most probable period of these innovations and their further diffusion. The digital-divide concept has been explicated by examining data on the relative dynamics of digital skills demanded by the same companies during the period of investigation. The empirical results deliver an interesting insight and encourage us to rethink the corporate digital divide through causality between competency accumulation and digital technological shifts. That, in turn, identifies the conditions necessary for the prediction of demand shocks in relation to digital competencies in labor markets.