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It has been proved by the latest research on key performance indicators
(KPIs) of transportation services that their successful implementation into
practice is possible only if there is a thorough database of indicators and the
methodology of their calculation. To reach these goals, it is necessary to classify
the indicators within the framework of the system which includes the two levels:
the basic (the first) and the specific (the second) KPI. This division allows to
form the complex of models to calculate the basic indicators, which characterize
performance (e.g. performance per hour), time parameters, expenses, reliability,
etc. The article provides the analysis of papers on the methods of transportation
efficiency rating in supply chains and the ways of their development to increase
the efficiency of transportation; the new approach to obtain analytic dependencies
to calculate KPI of transportation on the basis of the integral (factorial)
method of economic analysis; the examples of calculations of some KPIs of
transportation. The suggested KPI models can be used to create programs aimed
at the digitalization of transportation operations in supply chains.
Over the past thirty years, optimization modeling techniques have begun to be actively used in supply chain planning and management. Given the specifics of planning tasks in supply chains, linear programming and its methods such as dynamic programming, stochastic programming and scenario planning have become the most popular. These methods make it possible to optimize the supply chain across numerous databases, each of which corresponds to a scenario describing different options for development in an uncertain future. Despite quite intensive research in this area, dynamic and stochastic programming is still underused by managers to solve application tasks in various fields, including supply chain management. Hence, there is a need for development of new planning models in logistics and supply chain management in the context of incomplete information and methods that are used to investigate situations of risk and uncertainty.
The article covers issues of supply chain modeling being an important step in the decision-
making process. Logistics and supply chain management consider movement and transition
of material flow as well as financial, information and other flows associated with it. The
characteristics of a flow must be measured considering the dynamics of the flow movement.
This determines the importance of simulation modeling in decision-making support system as
the approach involves the implementation of modeling system algorithm functioning in a virtual
The literature analysis, on the one hand, allowed to conclude that the traditional approach
to functioning process characteristics determination involving consistent problem solving on
the level of supply chain element, is limited or not reflecting the specifics of real processes
where the parameters variability in time is possible. On the other hand, there is lack of specific
recommendations on building models based on principles of system dynamics as a simulation
modeling tool which allows to consider process characteristics variability. This determines
the aim of the research a part of which presents supply chain simulation model
illustrating the possibilities of the approach. The results of the work can be used both in practice
for industrial enterprises and for future research.
Rare demand is an important part of the inventory management,
nevertheless there are no any appropriate analytical descriptions or numerical
examples of it except separate papers where considered the possibility to
describe rare demand with Poisson distribution. The divergence between forecasts
and actual data could be explained by the following reasons: the first
one—extreme values in preforecasting period, as well as not significant ‘length’
of the analyzed time period; the second one—taking data for the forecast from
the period of conduction certain actions (sales, promo, etc.), consideration of
these actions might be done with combined forecasting methods. The paper
describes the approach to assessment of inventory consumption for rare demand
based on Poisson distribution. Besides, the paper contains the numerical
examples and analysis of the results.
In today's world digital solutions make life easier in various fields. Digital interaction provides a complete transition to automated systems and electronic document management, opening up new prospects for economic growth of the Eurasian economic Union, including the implementation of the transit potential of the Eurasian economic Union. The article considers digital solutions that can allow to develop the transit potential of the Eurasian economic Union, as well as identifies the existing problems of digitalization
To date, a diverse array of expert assessments for quantitative
(tangible) and qualitative (intangible) objects based on the analytic hierarchy
process (AHP) has been accumulated in various fields of knowledge. The systematization
and analysis of the collected data made it possible to put forward
the hypothesis that some of the indicators (the eigenvalue of the matrix, the
consistency index, and the ration of consistency) can be considered in the form
of aggregates of random variables representing an intellectual product and
reflecting features of human thinking. The systematization and statistical processing
of the results obtained by experts on the basis of the AHP showed that
the distribution functions of the values of expert estimates for the consistency
indices significantly differ from the similar functions of the generated matrices.
The use of digital solutions in various fields of activity today allows you to adapt to the digital needs of customers. The adoption of information technology by the subjects of the transport complex was not quick at the beginning, but development has accelerated since then and now they allow optimizing their activities. The article discusses the current regulatory documents in the field of digitalization of seaports. An analysis of cargo turnover by Russian seaports was made, and it was noted that one of the important factors affecting the increase in this indicator is the implementation of digital solutions. Examples of information technologies in the world and in Russia used in the activities of seaports are given.
Outsourcing implies the transfer of certain functions to a third-party company or an individual to perform them. The article considers the classification of outsourcing in relation to the subjects of transport space. It is noted that this mechanism can be effectively used by the subjects of transport space in order to increase the efficiency of their functioning.
The success of any logistics provider under the development of a digital economy directly
depends on the decision-making system, taking into account the dynamic nature of
the environment and the optimal construction of the internal structure. In an effort to ensure
a stable economic position in a competitive market, they pay more attention to both process
monitoring, management system analysis and forecasting tasks. At the same time, classic
models based on imitating modelling of processes and systems are proposed; for the study
of control models, it is necessary to supplement the analysis based on structural diagrams
and dynamic links. The use of dynamic links significantly expands the functionality of modelling
methods and allows not only to investigate the stock turn, but also to simulate the control
actions on the system to achieve the specified parameters. Modelling processes based
on dynamic links allows us to investigate the stability of logistics systems, to assess the impact
of disturbances on the system and elements. The proposed management model for the
logistics system is implemented according to the feedback control principle, which additionally
contributes to the formation of a more accurate decision-making system. The developed
model has the ability to scale for different levels of planning and takes into account the
dynamic nature of the processes in the logistics system, taking into account the influence
of the environment. The article additionally outlines the limits of application of simulation modelling
in the AnyLogic environment for the study of control systems, which substantiates the
practical importance of using structural diagrams and dynamic links for logistic systems.
Resents interpretations of some basic terms used in transport logistics in the organization of multimodal transport on the basis of research of official, scientific sources and Internet resources
In the article, in order to optimize logistics activities, is developed the architectural approach to the design of the operating model of the business system in the context of its main stages – the identification of strategic requirements, the construction of a system of top-level processes (value chains) and models of functional systems. The model is based on a conceptual map of logistics activities.
A review of the materials on the state of the organization of logistics activities in Russia is carried out, showing that at most enterprises the logistics service is not endowed with integrating functions of flow management.
A universal normative template for building activity systems is proposed, on the basis of which (on the example of a particular enterprise) the procedure of architectural modeling of the logistics system is given.
Functional logistics systems are considered as a complex of competence Centers, which allows us to further consider the owner of the functional system of "logistics management", while giving him the appropriate authority as a Manager, ensuring the integrative nature of all components of the logistics system of the enterprise.
Thus, the architectural model creates a platform for the integration of logistics activities of the organization, which leads to a systemic effect (due to the growth of coherence of all elements). This, in turn, gives a sharp increase in business efficiency, and also serves as the basis for designing the optimal organizational structure and digital transformation of this area of activity.
Stock-out – an inventory shortage, is a situation which periodically or constantly
retailers, networks of retail trade (and other commercial organizations connected
with replenishment and stocks expenditure) face worldwide. Numerous publications
of foreign authors proposing practical solutions for such organizations is
a vivid example of it. Some retail chain stores and enterprises even issue guidebooks
to handle stock-out.
In domestic literature, there are publications describing various stock-out
forms, as well as recommendations associated with the decision-making on them.
Nevertheless, the experience connected with the prevention and struggle
against the stock-out consequences is uncoordinated, lacks common structure, and
sequence of actions. An enterprise facing stock-out receives only fragmentary data
on the nature of this phenomenon, necessary instruments of influence and the sequence
To give an idea of the existing spectrum of analytical approaches and possible
practical solutions, is one of the main objectives of this article. At the same time,
issues related directly to determining the stock volume and other parameters of a
company's inventory management system are considered. Based on the analysis
of the issues described above, a possible algorithm of actions an organization can
follow in the event of a stock-out, is presented. The possible development of an approach
to manage the most complex stock-out case – «with a lost demand» is also
Organization of transportation significantly affects the performance indicators of logistics systems. Therefore, more and more attention are paid to the development of organizational and managerial measures, the implementation of which helps to reduce delivery time, to ensure their reliability at an economically viable total cost based on digital technologies. Automated management of the entire transport and logistics system of the port is becoming a mandatory requirement to ensure high-quality logistics in the supply chains. It is the precise organization of the logistics process that contains significant resources to reduce costs, increase speed, as well as reliability and quality of supply chains, but without the synergy of logistics and information technology, this is not possible. The aim of the study is to increase the efficiency of the seaport and the provided port services by coordinating the flow processes formed by all participants in legal relations arising in the process of transshipment and processing of cargo in the seaport. In the formation of the reliability and quality of transport services, to which port services can be fully attributed, basically two methodological approaches are used: a process and a system approach. The article focuses on the role and importance of seaports, as well as the formation of the quality of port services based on the application of the process approach. A classification of port services is proposed, which implies a wider list of classification features that consider the role and place of port services in the technological process of port operation. The analysis of the main technological processes associated with the passage of state control procedures in the seaport. The necessity of developing a unified network technological process of the seaport is identified and the principles of its formation are described. The results of the study allow us to conclude that the interaction between all participants in the technological process of cargo handling in the seaport is low, which negatively affects the quality of port services and the competitiveness of the port. The development of a unified network technological process of the seaport will allow us to systematize the main processes of the seaport and to reveal the systemic links between them, which ensures stable and efficient operation of the port, as well as the interaction between the flows of information, cargo and transport.
The paper discusses the problem of defining the characteristics of processes related to development and implementation of telecommunication technologies. These characteristics must reflect an adequate assessment of expectations for the implementation of new technologies and be a basis for correct and relevant decision-making, which should lead to key competitive advantages, both for an individual enterprise and the economy of the country as a whole. The above circumstances have predetermined the topicality of the research study, whose aim at this stage is to assess the adequacy of the analytical model, which is developed on the basis of Gartner’s hype cycle model and reflects the dependence of expectations for the technology on a time factor. The results of analytical modeling have been obtained on the example of the commonly used telecommunication technology Bluetooth. The source data included a number of articles on the relevant subject from Scopus database. Based on the obtained results, it has been concluded on the working capacity of the used model and recommendations have been given on its possible improvement.
Statement of Research. A need to reduce the increasing number of system vulnerabilities caused by unauthorized software installed on computer aids necessitates development of an approach to automate the data-storage media audit. The article describes an approach to identification of informative assembly instructions. Also, the influence of a chosen feature that is used to create a unified program signature on identification result is shown. Methods. Shannon method allowing a determination of feature informativeness for a random number of object classes and not depending on the sample volume of observed features is used to calculate informativeness. Identification of elf-files was based on applying statistical chi-squared test of homogeneity. Main Findings. Quantitative characteristics of informativeness for 118 assembly instructions have been obtained. The analysis of experimental results for executable files identification with 10 different features used to create program signatures compared by means of the chi-squared test of homogeneity at significance levels p = 0.05 and p = 0.01 has been carried out. Practical Relevance. The importance of using a particular feature in program signature creation has been discovered, as well as the capability of considering several executable file signatures together to provide a summative assessment on their belonging to a certain program.
The carried out studies show that from the point of view of the issue of efficiency increase of logistical systems, there are several key aspects. Firstly, choice of methods for managing the triad of logistics functions ‘inventory management - warehousing – transportation’, where the inventory management issues are considered as the most relevant ones. Secondly, there is recognized the need to move the studies of multi-level systems within the framework of the concept of supply chain management.
Nowadays, supply chains, which are represented by the distribution system, are widespread in practice. The most common of them are two-level ones with a central supplier at the second level and a certain number of companies at the first level; and multi-level systems of the distribution configuration network in which multi-nomenclature stocks are located. The article is devoted to the design and enhancement of analytical platform for inventory management in such distribution systems.