Saint Petersburg, Kantemirovskaya 3 A.
This chapter underlines the key role of a city centre in urban space gastronomy. It offers a four-step perspective, ranging from urban to local. First, the example of Saint-Petersburg (Russia) shows that gastronomy reflects the major phases of urban growth. Here, eating establishments are used as a proxy for the city centre. Second, the example of Warsow's Śródmieście district in Poland indicates the constant growth in catering services in this central borough since 1994. Using density analysis, it shows gastronomy hotspots in the centre of the city. Next, the case of Kraków (Poland) focuses on the centre of a historical tourist city, where there has been both quantitative growth in the number of eating establishments and a change in their distribution. The last examples offer a local perspective, specifically they concern the district Żoliborz in Warsaw, Poland, and the neighbourhood of Podskalí in Prague, the Czech Republic, which are near the city centre.
This paper axiomatically studies the equal split-off set (cf. Branzei et al. (Banach Center Publ 71:39–46, 2006)) as a solution for cooperative games with transferable utility which extends the well-known Dutta and Ray (Econometrica 57:615–635, 1989) solution for convex games. By deriving several characterizations, we explore consistency of the equal split-off set on the domains of exact partition games and arbitrary games.
In this paper, we address several aspects of applying classical machine learning algorithms to a regression problem. We compare the predictive power to validate our approach on a data about revenue of a large Russian restaurant chain. We pay special attention to solve two problems: data heterogeneity and a high number of correlated features. We describe methods for considering heterogeneity — observations weighting and estimating models on subsamples. We define a weighting function via Mahalanobis distance in the space of features and show its predictive properties on following methods: ordinary least squares regression, elastic net, support vector regression, and random forest.
Among the bryophytes, biological growth rhythms have not yet been identified due to a lack of long‐term precision observations. Here we carry out precision field monitoring of the growth of the peat moss Sphagnum riparium using the recent geotropic curvature method. For four years, using the observation intervals of 2‐5 days, we measured 116 469 shoots and received 4 493 estimates of growth rates. We found three rhythmic growth components. The seasonal rhythm of growth has a period of about 180 days, which coincides with the seasonal temperature cycle. The circalunar growth rhythm has a period of about 29.5 days and coincides with the synodic lunar cycle. There is an acceleration near the new moon, and a slowdown in growth near the full moon. The third rhythm has a period of 7‐16 days and is always synchronized with the circalunar growth rhythm. From the models of the sums of sinusoids, we found that the total contribution of all three rhythms to the growth rate is R2 = 0.51‐0.78, and without taking into account the seasonal rhythm, R2 = 0.36‐0.42. Thus, our study gives the first data on the biological rhythms and the contribution of these rhythms to the growth process of bryophytes. We attribute the unexpectedly high contribution of rhythms to the synchronous growth of the Sphagnum mat, which is necessary to reduce the loss of moisture.
We study voting rules with respect to how they allow or limit a majority from dominating minorities: whether a voting rule makes a majority powerful and whether minorities can veto the candidates they do not prefer. For a given voting rule, the minimal share of voters that guarantees a victory to one of the majority’s most preferred candidates is the measure of majority power; and the minimal share of voters that allows the minority to veto each of their least preferred candidates is the measure of veto power. We find tight bounds on such minimal shares for voting rules that are popular in the literature and used in real elections. We order the rules according to majority power and veto power. Instant-runoff voting has both the highest majority power and the highest veto power; plurality rule has the lowest. In general, the greater is the majority power of a voting rule, the greater its veto power. The three exceptions are: voting with proportional veto power, Black’s rule and Borda’s rule, which have relatively weak majority power and strong veto power, thus providing minority protection. Our results can shed light on how voting rules provide different incentives for voter participation and candidate nomination.
Although the linear-in-means model is the workhorse model in empirical work on
peer effects, its theoretical properties are understudied. In this study, we develop
a social-norm model that provides a microfoundation of the linear-in-means model
and investigate its properties. We show that individual outcomes may increase,
decrease, or vary non-monotonically with the taste for conformity. Equilibria are
usually ineffcient and, to restore the rst best, the planner needs to subsidize (tax)
agents whose neighbors make efforts above (below) the social norms. Thus, giving
more subsidies to more central agents is not necessarily effcient. We also discuss the
policy implications of our model in terms of education and crime.
It follows from negative plant growth response that the solar UV-B wavelengths that penetrate the ozone layer (≥286 nm), in contrast to those absorbed (<286 nm), must leave growth inhibition fingerprints on plants. These fingerprints are expected from the growth of the Sphagnum genus, which are dominant in boreal and subarctic peatlands and have increased sensitivity to ambient UV-B. To test this hypothesis, we analysed the response of the daily growth rates of Sphagnum riparium measured over four years to solar UV radiation of 200–310 nm wavelengths recorded outside the Earth's atmosphere by SORCE satellite. We found that only wavelengths longer than 286 nm inhibit Sphagnum growth, while shorter wavelengths do not affect growth process. The data precisely correspond to the physical data on the specific wavelengths reaching the Earth’s surface. Based on the universal UVR8-dependent mechanism of UV-B perception in plants, we concluded that plants with increased UV sensitivity have indicator potential for the evaluation of the penetration of the shortest solar UV wavelengths through the ozone layer.
A tournament can be represented as a set of candidates and the results from pairwise comparisons of the candidates. In our setting, candidates may form coalitions. The candidates can choose to fix who wins the pairwise comparisons within their coalition. A coalition is winning if it can guarantee that a candidate from this coalition will win each pairwise comparison. This approach divides all coalitions into two groups and is, hence, a simple game. We show that each minimal winning coalition consists of a certain uncovered candidate and its dominators. We then apply solution concepts developed for simple games and consider the desirability relation and the power indices which preserve this relation. The tournament solution, defined as the maximal elements of the desirability relation, is a good way to select the strongest candidates. The Shapley–Shubik index, the Penrose–Banzhaf index, and the nucleolus are used to measure the power of the candidates. We also extend this approach to the case of weak tournaments.
The article attempts to analyze the debt crisis in Portugal - as an essential component of the Great Recession in this country - using the financial fragility hypothesis developed by H. P. Minsky. Using a sample of 42 leading Portuguese non-financial private companies, the paper analyzes how the financing regimes used by these companies changed from 2001 to 2017. Before and at the height of the Great Recession, the share of firms with hedge financing mode was decreasing, while the share of firms with fragile financing regimes was increasing. Special attention is paid to how the Portuguese authorities applied austerity policies to deal with the debt crisis, and how they subsequently departed from the principles of this policy. The paper demonstrates that it was precisely after departing from the austerity doctrine of Portuguese non-financial private firms that largely managed to get rid of financial fragility.
This study explores participation of Russian fast-growing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in international trade and delivers the evidence of the effects of public policy support on growth and export activity. We show that small and medium sized enterprises that can be attributed to fast-growing firms, have higher export activity, but higher growth rates for them are dominated by growth of domestic sales. Regarding market orientation of Russian firms, we find that fast-growing SMEs are more oriented towards non-CIS markets (primarily, Asian) in comparison to other exporting SMEs. We explore the effects of sanctions and find that fast-growing firms more often entered new country markets than other SMEs. We show that SMEs and fast-growing firms working on foreign markets more intensively use digital technologies. Fast-growing SMEs demonstrate lower dependence on technology imports and higher interest in developing and introducing technologies. We explore public policy support for SMEs and find that government support measures are poorly targeted at small companies in comparison to large business and contribute little to firms’ growth and increase of their export activity.
We provide a bare-bones framework that uncovers the circumstances which lead either to
the emergence of equally-spaced and equally-sized central places or to a hierarchy of central
places. We show how these patterns reect the preferences of agents and the e¢ ciency of trans-
portation and communication technologies. With one population of homogeneous individuals,
the economy is characterized by a uniform distribution or by a periodic distribution of central
places having the same size. The interaction between two distinct populations may give rise
to a hierarchy of central places with one or several primate cities
Larger cities typically give rise to two opposite effects: tougher competition among firms and higher production costs. Using an urban model with substitutability of production factors and pro-competitive effects, I study product market responses to an increase in city population, land-use regulations, and commuting costs. I show that those responses depend on the land intensity in production. If the input share of land is low, a larger city attracts more firms setting lower prices, whereas for an intermediate land share, city expansion increases both the mass of firms and product prices. For a high land share, the mass of firms decreases with city size while product price increases. Softer land-use regulations and/or lower commuting costs reinforce pro-competitive effects, making city residents better-off via lower product prices and broader diversity.
We investigate how prescriptive and descriptive norms affect the development of corruption over time. In particular, we are interested in whether the extent of corruption converges. If it does, we study how the level at which it converges depends on the prescriptive norms in the environment in which it takes place and on the information individuals have about others’ corrupt choices, that is, on descriptive norms. In a laboratory experiment implemented in Italy, China and the Netherlands, a Gneezy-type corruption task is used, with a real-effort task. We use a Krupka-Weber elicitation method to obtain information about existing prescriptive norms with respect to corrupt behavior. To induce natural variation in descriptive norms, we vary the type of information about others’ choices. Our results show that corruption is highly contagious everywhere, that is, descriptive norms affect choices. Nevertheless, differences in the effects of descriptive norms are evident across countries. Prescriptive norms concerning bribers’ and judges’ behaviors are observed to differ across the considered subject pools. While in China and the Netherlands it is highly socially inappropriate to bribe and, if you are a decision maker, to treat unfavorably people with high efforts and low bribes, in Italy the norms are the opposite.
World War I led to radical changes in the government policy of participating countries. The enormous demographic and economic disturbances caused by the war forced the governments of all the belligerent nations to drastically restrict the market freedom. In particular, the state began actively intervening in the housing market. Ukraine as a part of the former Russian Empire, for the first time in its history saw the introduction of rent controls and protection of tenants from eviction. This paper concentrates on the government intervention in the rental housing market of Right-Bank Ukraine during World War I (1914-1918). It identifies the factors that made the state intervene in the relationships between landlords and tenants; analyzes changes in the housing legislation; and assesses the effectiveness of the regulations.