The aim of the work is to assess the impact of the 2014 geopolitical and economic crisis on the health of St. Petersburg residents. According to the accepted hypothesis, the crisis had a negative impact on the health of citizens and the conditions of their livelihoods. To test the hypothesis, the dynamics of indicators directly describing the level of public health, as well as factors affecting this level, was considered. The long-term trends prevailing in the pre-crisis period were studied, and a linear trend was constructed for each indicator and extrapolated values were calculated for two years following 2014. The main measure of the impact of the crisis on the dynamics of the indicator was the negative deviation from the trend in these years. Twenty-six indicators that showed a negative deviation were identified and investigated. As a result, it was proved that the crisis had a significant negative impact on the health of the residents of St. Petersburg. Including a sharp decline in environmental indicators, which we associate with the tradition of “residual financing” of the social sphere during the crisis, the same reason caused a significant reduction in a number of health resources. The crisis also had a negative impact on the structure of consumption, causing a decrease in the consumption of high-quality goods and an increase in consumption of low-quality goods. The dynamics of the incidence of a number of diseases showed that the deterioration in the quality of nutrition made a significant contribution to the increase in the incidence. It is shown that the current program of development of health care of the city contains low targets and does not take into account environmental factors, which reduces its effectiveness as an instrument of regional social policy. The proposed method makes it possible to calculate scientifically based targets for programs for the restoration development of the social sphere in the region.
We study game equilibria in a model of production and externalities in network with two types of agents who possess different productivities. Each agent may invest a part of her endowment (for instance, time or money) at the first stage; consumption at the second period depends on her own investment and productivity as well as on the investments of her neighbors in the network. Three ways of agent’s behavior are possible: passive (no investment), active (a part of endowment is invested) and hyperactive (the whole endowment is invested). We introduce adjustment dynamics and study consequences of junction of two regular networks with different productivities of agents. In particular, we study how the behavior of nonadopters (passive agents) changes when they connect to adopters (active or hyperactive) agents.
World War I led to radical changes in the government policy of participating countries. The enormous demographic and economic disturbances caused by the war forced the governments of all the belligerent nations to drastically restrict the market freedom. In particular, the state began actively intervening in the housing market. Ukraine as a part of the former Russian Empire, for the first time in its history saw the introduction of rent controls and protection of tenants from eviction. This paper concentrates on the government intervention in the rental housing market of Right-Bank Ukraine during World War I (1914-1918). It identifies the factors that made the state intervene in the relationships between landlords and tenants; analyzes changes in the housing legislation; and assesses the effectiveness of the regulations.
The conflict between Russia and Ukraine that started in March 2014 led Western countries and Russia to impose economic sanctions on each other, including the euro zone members. The paper investigates the impact of the sanctions on the real side of the economies of Russia and the euro area. The effects of sanctions are analyzed with a structural vector autoregression. To pin down the effect we are interested in, we include an index that measures the intensity of the sanctions in the model. The sanction shock is identified and separated from the oil price shock by narrative sign restrictions. We find weak evidence that Russian and euro area GDPs declined as a result of the sanctions. The effects of the sanctions are also small for the real effective exchange rate.
We compare the Egalitarian rule (aka Egalitarian Equivalent) and the Competitive rule (aka Competitive Equilibrium with Equal Incomes) to divide bads (chores). They are both welfarist: the competitive disutility profile(s) are the critical points of their Nash product on the set of efficient feasible profiles. The C rule is Envy Free, Maskin Monotonic, and has better incentives properties than the E rule. But, unlike the E rule, it can be wildly multivalued, admits no selection continuous in the utility and endowment parameters, and is harder to compute. Thus in the division of bads, unlike that of goods, no rule normatively dominates the other.
This paper is devoted to the role of information context in the dynamics of consumption/savings decisions. The deviations from the traditional model of rational expectations are investigated, and the hypotheses of the «rational inattention» are tested. The basis for the study was a selection of news from the major Russian TV channels for 2006-2016. This news available to ordinary households in Russia was analyzed. News was defined as negative or positive with special program tools of sentiment analysis. It was found that increased uncertainty (the spread of positive and negative news) leads to the choice of consumption to the detriment of savings, which then reduces the investment base of the economy. The authors analyze the connection of the tonality of news and its changes with the real business cycle. The authors found that the information cycle with some lag correlated with the cycle in consumption/savings decisions in the Russian Federation. The authors conclude that the concept of rational inattention is more acceptable for this case. Based on the study, recommendations are offered for adjusting public policy.
In this paper we estimate the effects of indicators of “hard” and “soft” infrastructure on export performance in Russian regions. Empirical results show that both hard and soft infrastructure measures matter for export survival of export flows from non-resource-oriented Russian regions. Empirical estimates account for size and time effects for export flows and find that the positive effects of hard and soft infrastructure are falling over time and are more important for larger exporters. This may serve as an evidence of a learning curve for exporters when the latter become more efficient with time in treating with regional-level hard and soft infrastructure resources
We consider random public signals on the state of two-person zero-sum game with incomplete information on both sides (both players do not know the state of the game). To learn the state, each player chooses a finite automaton which receives the public signal; the player only sees the output of the automaton chosen. Supposing that the size of automata available to Player 1 is essentially bigger than that available to Player 2, we give an example of public signal with random length of output strings where the posterior belief of Player 1 is the state and the posterior belief of Player 2 is close to his original belief. Thus, we demonstrate that asymmetric information about the state of a game may appear not only due to a private signal but as a result of a public signal and asymmetric computational resources of players.Besides, for a class of random signals with fixed length of output strings, we estimate the fraction of signals such that some automaton of given size may help Player 2 to significantly reestimate prior probability of the state. We show that this fraction is negligible if the size of automata of Player 2 is sufficiently smaller than length of output strings.
This article contains a research on the matter of current global talent management challenges, starting with a brief introduction of the basic aspects of talent management itself as a concept, later on moving to short definition of the form of current challenges, followed by the literature review on the topic. As a result of publications observation on global talent management challenges, added by author’s research on practical aspects of the matter and analytical outcomes there were defined several challenges met by HR specialist in the field of talent management today.
The effect of health on labor force participation is an established fact. This research hypothesizes the endogeneity of health stemming from the reverse effect, reporting bias and unobserved factors. The relationship between health and labor force participation of elderly Russians is modeled with simultaneous equations using data from World Health Organization Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health, Wave 1 (WHO SAGE, 2007–2010). A strong and non-linear effect of health on labor force participation is confirmed. Unlike for a complex health measure, endogeneity, confirmed by the correlation of unobserved shocks in the system of equations, is found for single-question health measures. The results show that the official retirement age has a moderate effect on labor force participation for women and a weaker or no effect for men. Nevertheless, the health of elderly Russians does not impose strong limitations on the increase of the retirement age.
This paper provides a pioneering approach to estimate the relationship between interregional human capital mobility and the occurrence of high-growth firms (HGFs). We construct and employ the dataset on mobility of university graduates from top-100 Russian universities. We find that the relationship between the mobility of high-skilled university graduates and high-growth firms is non-linear and U-shaped: the initial rise in the number of HGFs is due to the relatively low concentration of highly skilled migrants and availability of innovations only for a small number of firms. However, the competition effect strengthens at some point when innovations become available for larger number of firms simultaneously with large inflow of highly skilled university graduates.
This paper investigates the persistence of self-employment in the districts of Kaliningrad, a Russian exclave, between 1925 and 2010. The area experienced a number of disruptive historical shocks during this period. This setting rules out the fact that the persistence of self-employment can be explained by the persistence of institutions and culture. Nevertheless, a high level of persistence of industry-specific self-employment rates is found. It is argued that a historical tradition of entrepreneurship created an awareness about the entrepreneurial potential of regions among the new population that was yielded after the collapse of the Soviet Union. This effect seems to be higher in regions where a specific industry was advanced in terms of technology use
World War I played a key role in shaping modern housing policy. While in the pre-War era, there was virtually no housing policy, hostilities led to an almost immediate and comprehensive state intervention in the housing market, particularly among those engaged in the war. Originally, Russia went the same way as the other countries. However, after the communists seized power in November 1917, they started conducting a different policy reflecting their specific objectives. These differences become apparent when Soviet Russia is compared with Germany—a large European market economy that faced similar challenges: the devastating consequences of World War I, hyperinflation in the early 1920s, and the dictatorship regime of the 1930s. Thus, the diverging characteristics of the housing policy of both countries can to a large extent be attributed to the ideological differences between the centrally planned and the market economies.
This article examines the relationship between import of components and export of products in Russian manufacturing companies. We test whether the import of components and semi-finished goods for further processing increases export intensity and innovativeness of export at the firm level. Additionally, the effect of imports of equipment and other means of production on the competitiveness of exports is tested. We employ cross-sectional data for 895 manufacturing firms in Russia in 2014 which comes from the RUFIGE database. To test the hypothesis, we use probit regression. The study shows that import of high-tech components provides higher competitiveness in export markets and is associated with higher share of export revenues in Russian manufacturing firms. We also find a positive impact of imports of machinery and equipment on the export of high-tech products in Russian manufacturing firms.