The work is devoted to the analysis of entrepreneurial activities. The main purpose of paper is to better understand the institutional impact on entrepreneurship and business survival. Were used data from GEM (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor) for 98 countries throughout 1999-2016 as dependent variables such as total entrepreneurial activity (TEA), established business ownership (EBO), and early-stage business survival rate (EBO/TEA). As explanatory variables characterizing institutional environment we used the rule of law and control of corruption.The results show positive relationships between rule of law and early-stage business survival, and between control of corruption and early-stage business survival rate. Also the rule of law positively influence on level EBO. However, there was no evidence that rule of law and control of corruption are important for the total entrepreneurial activity.
The world heroin market today commands an estimated annual market value of US$55 billion and affects around 12 million people. After a short description of the current state of the world heroin market and its basic properties—maturity, segmentation, and elasticity—this chapter briefly outlines the history of heroin consumption and its regulation over the last 150 years. Historically, most interventions in the heroin market sought to curb its availability and consumption by using either vinegar (incarcerating drug sellers and users) or honey (diverting addicts to treatment). However, there is no conclusive evidence that either way is effective in reducing the number of heroin users and addicts; to a large extent, drugs become popular or fall out of fashion due to the natural history of epidemics and other social and cultural factors. Thus, the traditional drug policy goal of addressing the root cause—reducing the number of heroin users—is largely misplaced. Currently, many scholars conceive of “harm reduction” as an overarching goal of drug policy. As health-oriented harm reduction does not aim to curtail drug use per se but reduce some of its harmful consequences, criminological harm reduction applied to drug-related crime does not aim to prevent violation of drug laws per se but rather to prevent certain harmful consequences of drug use and sales. We then use the influential Goldstein model of drug-related crime to show how harm reduction principles can be applied to heroin-related drug crime.
In the 1960s and 1970s, the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union experienced an unanticipated stagnation in the process of mortality reduction that was accelerating in the west. This was followed by even starker fluctuations and overall declines in life expectancy during the 1980s and 1990s. We identify statistically the extent to which, since the 1990s, the countries of the post-communist region have converged as a group towards other regional or cross-regional geopolitical blocks, or whether there are now multiple steady-states (‘convergence clubs’) emerging among these countries. We apply a complex convergence club methodology, including a recursive analysis, to data on 30 OECD countries (including 11 post-communist countries) drawn from the Human Mortality Database and spanning the period 1959–2010. We find that, rather than converging uniformly on western life expectancy levels, the post-communist countries have diverged into multiple clubs, with the lowest seemingly stuck in low-level equilibria, while the best performers (e.g. Czech Republic) show signs of catching-up with the leading OECD countries. As the post-communist period has progressed, the group of transition countries themselves has become more heterogeneous and it is noticeable that distinctive gender and age patterns have emerged. We are the first to employ an empirical convergence club methodology to help understand the complex long-run patterns of life expectancy within the post-communist region, one of very few papers to situate such an analysis in the context of the OECD countries, and one of relatively few to interpret the dynamics over the long-term.
Based upon a survey of more than three thousand respondents and forty in-depth interviews, the aim of this article is to examine the impact of migration on sexual resocialisation. In particular, we show how living in London influenced the attitudes of Central and East European migrants towards pre-marital sex and homosexuality. While the general acceptability of pre-marital sex was not affected by time spent in London, differences were noted in the meaning attached to sex outside marriage in the United Kingdom compared with Central and Eastern Europe. Particularly significant changes were observed in our respondents’ attitudes towards homosexuality, with a greater liberalisation the result of extrication from mechanisms of social control, re-socialisation into new social norms regarding sex and sexuality, greater visibility of sexual difference in London and, in particular, inter-personal contacts with gays and lesbians. Limitations to the general liberalisation of attitudes were also noted.
With rapid growth of online social network sites, the issue of health-related online communities and its social and behavioral implications has become increasingly important for public health. Unfortunately, online communities often become vehicles for promotion of pernicious misinformation, in particular, that HIV virus is a myth (AIDS denialism). This study seeks to explore online users’ behavior and interactions within AIDS-denialist community to identify and estimate the number of those, who potentially are most susceptible to AIDS-denialist arguments—“the risk group” in terms of becoming AIDS denialists. Social network analysis was used for examining the most numerous AIDS-denialist community (over 15,000 members) in the most popular Russian SNS “VK.com.” In addition, content analysis was used for collecting data on attitudes toward AIDS-denialist arguments and participants’ self-disclosed HIV status. Two data sets were collected to analyze friendship ties and communication interactions among community members. We have identified the core of online community—cohesive and dedicated AIDS denialists, and the risk group: users who communicate with core members, and, thus, can be more susceptible to the AIDS-denialist propaganda and their health behaviors (e.g., refusing treatment). Analysis allowed to significantly reduce the target audience for possible intervention campaigns and simultaneously increase the accuracy of determining the risk group composition.
With low take-up of both private health insurance and the existing public drug reimbursement scheme, it is thought that less than 5% of the Russian population have access to free outpatient drug treatment. This represents a major policy challenge for a country grappling with reforms of its healthcare system and experiencing low or no economic growth and significant associated reductions in spending on social services. In this paper, we draw on data from a recent Levada-Center survey to examine the attitudes and social solidarity of the Russian population towards drug policies in general and towards the introduction of a proposed voluntary drug insurance system in particular. In addition to being among the first to explore these important questions in the post-Communist setting, we make three important contributions to the emerging policy debates. First, we find that, if introduced immediately and without careful planning and preparation, Russia’s voluntary drug insurance scheme is likely to collapse financially due to the over-representation of high-risk unhealthy individuals opting in to the scheme. Second, the negative attitude of higher income groups towards the redistribution of wealth to the poor may further impede government efforts to introduce voluntary drug insurance. Finally, we argue that Russia currently lacks the breadth and depth of social solidarity necessary for implementing this form of health financing.
Russia has had a high elderly share of its population like the OECD countries, but has had a more turbulent history over the past 100 years, which has caused fluctuations in the capabilities of those turning 60 (measured by education and training, income, enabling environment, medical care, and health status). This article analyses the life experiences and capabilities of five Russian birth cohorts turning 60 over the period 1990–2020. It presents relevant concepts, reviews past research, and evaluates the importance of health factors (health environment, health-related behaviours, medical care, health status) in determining the activities and contributions of older people in Russia. A Human Capabilities of the Elderly in Russia Index (HCERI) with 22 indicators is developed. Russian data are used in the calculation of the HCERI for the cohorts turning 60 in 1990, 1995, 2000, 2010 and 2020. The article then presents evaluations of the experiences and changes in capabilities for each of the five selected cohorts of the elderly in four periods of life: Childhood (1–15 years), Young Adult (16–49), Mature Adult (50–59), and Early Elderly (60–69). The implications of changes in the characteristics of the elderly for Russian government policies are discussed.
training on wage growth
The HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Russia continues to spread. This exploratory study examines how HIV-prevention measures are perceived and experienced by PWID in the northwestern region of Russia.Methods
Purposive sampling was used to obtain a variety of cases that could reflect possible differences in perception and experience of HIV-prevention efforts. We conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with PWID residing in the Arkhangelsk and St. Petersburg regions.Results
The main sources of prevention information on HIV for PWID were media campaigns directed to the general population. These campaigns were effective with regard to communicating general knowledge on HIV but were ineffective in terms of risk behavior change. The subjects generally had trust in medical professionals and their advice but did not follow prevention recommendations. Most informants had no or very little prior contact with harm reduction services. On the level of attitudes towards HIV prevention efforts, we discovered three types of fatalism among PWID: “personal fatalism” - uselessness of HIV prevention efforts, if one uses drugs; “prevention-related fatalism” - prevention programs are low effective, because people do not pay attention to them before they get infected; “state-related fatalism” – the lack of belief that the state is concerned with HIV prevention issues. Despite this fatalism the participants opined that NGOs would do a better job than the state as they are “really working” with risk groups.Conclusions
As HIV prevention campaigns targeted at the general population and prevention advice received from medical professionals are not sufficiently effective for PWID in terms of risk behavior change, prevention programs, such as community-based and peer-based interventions specifically tailored to the needs of PWID are needed, which can be achieved by a large expansion of harm reduction services in the region. Personal communication should be a crucial element in such interventions in addition to harm reduction materials provision. Training programs, peer outreach, and culture-change interventions which try to alter widespread fatalistic norms or attitudes towards their health are especially needed, since this study indicates that fatalism is a major barrier for behavior change.
The article is categorized as a case study. In the paper described the experience of Saint-Petersburg branch of Higher School of Economics to optimizeUniversity management through a transformation of approaches to the administrative services. This optimization process should be handled by highly potential employees through their project management teams.
The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the experience of constructing the new organizational model at the University through the participation of the most talented employees and applying Scrum project management methodology in their activity.
The article presents the basic concepts of talent management in a modern University and major principles of the Scrum methodology. The results of monitoring, that identified the most important areas of activity in the formation of projects for members of the high potential group, are given in this paper.
The conducted study provides grounds for conclusions about the necessity of taking into account peculiarities of corporate culture in the implementation of new management arrangements. During this research was discovered that the main expectations of employees in the optimization of services associated with digitalize processes, transferring into electronic forms of most of the processes related to discussions, negotiations, provision of administration and management. At the same time, the established management approaches are often perceived format and dogmas not considered by the majority as considerable directions of transformation. This plan requires the participation of informal leaders, receiving direct support from the leadership to implement changes in favor of the optimization process.
It was established that the main objects for innovation are administrative processes which include financial, personnel and clerical services. The operation of these units requires special attention from the management of University because in many ways, can promote the formation of a favorable corporate environment of research fellows and teachers. The Scrum approach to the implementation of projects related to the optimization of administrative services brings of University managers at a higher level of involvement, and this effect extends beyond the talented employees’ group, which should be examined and discussed on a regular basis. The article draws a conclusion about the need for significant prior work to convey to employees information about the planned changes, and then the permanent information support within the implementation of projects.
The originality of the article is that it discusses an integrated approach for the implementation of decentralized management and optimization of administrative services. It is based on practical experience of monitoring the corporate environment of the University, as well as a description of the original Scrum method to implement the relevant projects using the talent pool of the University.
The article studies entrepreneurial activity in Russia. In order to select the most relevant areas for analysis at the country level, an overview of current research on entrepreneurial activity is presented. It includes the analysis of opportunities and constraints of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitoring (GEM) project, which has a unique, annually updated database that is used to comprehensively study entrepreneurship at the national and global levels. The article analyzes the dynamics of the level of entrepreneurial activity, the aspirations of entrepreneurs, the attitude to entrepreneurship in the society, the assessment of the factors that impede and stimulate entrepreneurial activity in Russia, as well as the changes that occurred between 2006 and 2016. It gives the possibility to assess the sustainability of the main indicators of entrepreneurial activity and the main trends in entrepreneurship development.
In the last decade, the model of conducting pharmaceutical business has undergone changes. Increased R&D spending and growing difficulty of researching and developing drug process encourage innovative companies looking for other ways to increase their value. The business landscape, where pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies operate, allows them to use a model of strategic partnerships, focused on cooperation in the R & D field and a more flexible approach to managing intellectual property. An early arrangement in the partnership entails a lower level of risk and more successful results which biotech firm can reach because of the sufficient amount of financial resources coming from the pharmaceutical firm, but the later agreement can help the biotech firm to better monetize the final market. This research introduces and analyses the alliance formation in biotechnology industry by modelling the decisions of whether and when ally with a pharmaceutical company through a real options game. For the Russian reality, with a lack of efficient mechanism for start-ups, the evaluation and study of partnership models is one of the key success factors for pharmaceutical industry.
Importance Many economic agents hide the facts of bribery they were involved into, so it is important to study the nature of corruption perceptions to estimate the latent phenomenon. The difference between estimations on official data and perceptions prove that need. Moreover, anticorruption legislation may not work in case of strong pro-corruptive institutions.
Objectives Revealing relationship of corruption perceptions to different factors, especially for transitional economies.
Methods Nonparametric and regression empirical estimations. The relationship between corruption perceptions (CPI) and GDP per capita, wellbeing, shadow economy size and institutional characteristics, such as government quality.
Results We have found empirical evidence for the hypothesis that shadow economy and corruption can be both substitutes and complements, the last is true for high income and low shadow economy countries. If shadow economy is huge, the relationship vanishes. Income is relevant in macro-analysis, but on individual data the relationship does not seem to be strong. Institutional quality has negative relationship with corruption perceptions, both for formal and informal institutions. We also touch upon the question of the difference between informal institutions, such as trust, in developed European and post-socialist countries.
Conclusions and Relevance Results can be used in long-term anticorruption policy, as institutional changes can lead to lower corruption.
While a number of studies, based on cross-sectional data for Russia, have documented strong increases in female smoking during the past two decades, the analysis of longer-term trends in smoking prevalence is hampered by the lack of representative data for the Soviet era. In this paper we create life-course smoking histories based on retrospective data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey of HSE (RLMS-HSE) and the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) which allow us to examine the dynamics of smoking patterns over the past 7 decades. We find that smoking rates differ most strongly by gender within all cohorts, but that this differential has decreased over time, driven by increases in female smoking and more recently by decreases in smoking among men. For both genders we observe that the education gradient has become steeper over time, with smoking rates having increased at a higher rate among those with the lowest educational attainment. These findings suggest that the development of smoking in Russia mirrors that described in the model of the tobacco epidemic and observed in Western high-income countries.
Background: Despite Ukraine’s large population, few studies have examined social inequalities in health. This study describes Ukrainian educational inequalities in self-rated health and assesses how far psychosocial, material and behavioural factors account for the education gradient in health. Methods:Data were analyzed from the 2007 wave of the Ukrainian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. Education was categorized as: lower secondary or less, upper secondary and tertiary. In logistic regressions of 5451 complete cases, stratified by gender, declaring less than average health was regressed on education, before and after adjusting for psychosocial, material and behavioural factors. Results: In analyses adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, compared with those educated up to lower secondary level, tertiary education was associated with lower risk of less than average health for both men and women. Including material factors (income quintiles, housing assets, labour market status) reduced the association between education and health by 55–64% in men and 35–47% in women. Inclusion of health behaviours (physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index) reduced the associations by 27–30% in men and 19–27% in women; in most cases including psychosocial factors (marital status, living alone, trust in family and friends) did not reduce the size of the associations. Including all potential explanatory factors reduced the associations by 68–84% in men and 43–60% in women. Conclusions: The education gradient in self-rated health in Ukraine was partly accounted for by material and behavioural factors. In addition to health behaviours, policymakers should consider upstream determinants of health inequalities, such as joblessness and poverty.
The evolution and outcomes of conflicts in Europe, including the current one in Ukraine, have been influenced by the dynamics of economic, technological and military balances, which in turn are affected by the economic warfare and sanctions that have been used to alter them. This article reviews defence economic concepts of relevance to the Ukraine conflict and then draws out lessons for the present concerning power balances, military capabilities, conventional deterrence, economic warfare and counter-measures against sanctions from experiences in Europe in the twentieth century. An evaluation is made of the impacts of economic sanctions on Russia and Ukraine in 2014–2016.